Absolute Apparel - Fruit of the Loom, Gildan, Regatta and Stedman clothing.

Common Terms

Acrylic
(Fibre) Generic name for man made fibres derived from polyacrylonitrile. Features a soft, woolly hand; wash and wear performance; brilliant high shade colours; good sunlight and wrinkle resistance.

Air Jet Spinning
During Air Jet Spinning yarn is made by wrapping fibres around a core stream of fibres with compressed air. In this process, the fibres are stretched to the appropriate size, then fed to the air jet chambers where they are twisted, first in one direction, then in the reverse direction in a second chamber. The yarn is stabilized after each operation.
Yarn produced on Air Jet pills less because the spinning process creates a tighter outer wrap which holds typically loose polyester fibres (experienced in Open End Spinning) in place. Fewer loose polyester fibres means less pilling.

Banded
Fabric is folded double and sewn down. Refers to tee shirt collars and staff shirt sleeves

Basketweave
A variation of a plain weave in which two or more yarns weave alike in both the warp(Vertical) and Filling (Horizontal) directions. The name probably derives from the similarity to basket work structures. The weave produces a rather LOOSE construction.

Bird's-eye
A pattern that resembles a bird's eye.

Buckram backing
Stiff fabric used to give shape and form to items like caps, belts, etc. Also used to stabilize embroidery, edges.

Cap Sleeves
Sleeve type used mainly in ladies styles but is also used in unisex styles. Standard tee sleeve length is approximately to the elbow. Cap sleeves would fall midway between the elbow and the shoulder.

Carded Cotton
Yarn that has been cleaned aligned and formed into a continuous untwisted strand but has NOT gone through additional spinning processes like combing or ring spinning.

Carding
Preliminary process in yarn spinning. Fibres are separated and made into more parallel-untwisted strand called SLIVERS. This process also removes most of the impurities and a certain amount of short or broken fibres.

Centre line/ Centre Crease
Helps line up garment for screenprint or embroidery. Disadvantage - if line is not actually centred, it is more difficult to centre logo.

Colourfast
A term used to describe fabrics of sufficient colour retention so that no noticeable changes in shade take place during the "normal" life of the garment.

Constructed
Crown of a cap has Buckram to give the cap shape even when it is not being worn.

Coolmax
Certification mark of the Dupont Company, for knitted fabrics made of POLYESTER fibres that are grooved on the outside to facilitate better wicking and moisture evaporation.

Cotton
Cotton is named for a shrubby plant (genus Gossypium) of the MALLOW family, for the fibres surrounding the seeds, and for the cloth woven from the spun fibres. Each of the seeds, which are contained in capsules, or bolls, is surrounded by white or cream-coloured downy fibres that flatten and twist naturally as they dry. Cotton is tropical in origin but is now cultivated worldwide. It has been spun, woven, and dyed since prehistoric times.

Coverseaming/Coverstitching
Two needles to overlap the threads underneath, reinforcing the seams with a smooth layer of threads. (looks similar to double needle stitching)

Denier
Is to polyester as Singles is to cotton, however with Denier, the SMALLER the number of denier the THINNER the strand of polyester and the LARGER the number the THICKER the strand of polyester. (This is the OPPOSITE of singles.)

End-On-End
An alternating colour or striped effect.

Four-needle stitching
Used to reinforce the waistband in shorts and sweatpants.

Greige (Grey) Goods
Knitted or woven fabrics of all fibers in an unfinished state, after they have been woven and before dyeing or finishing.

Grommet
An eyelet of firm material (ex: Metal) to strengthen or protect an opening.

Gusset
Insert (as in the sleeve seam or side panel - Cross grain crew) to widen and strengthen.

Hand
The "feel" of a fabric or print.

Heather
Blended fibres combined to create a vari-colored effect; e.g. heather grey. Heather fabric typically contains 3 fibres: cotton, polyester or rayon. In any of the garments that we carry an ASH or BIRCH or Heather Grey etc (The name may vary per mill) these colours are NEVER 100% Cotton. Another fibre MUST be added with the cotton in order to achieve the necessary colour. PLEASE NOTE: If a fabric contains 95% cotton it can be LEGALLY labelled 100% cotton, however, the mills that we carry will state the proper content on the garment label for these colours.

Interlock
Double knit construction makes this the heaviest of the 3 knits. Similar to a Jersey knit except both front and back of the fabric look identical. Interlock is the tightest weave, gives the smoothest surface and the finest hand.

Jacquard
A large front single pocket, with side openings allowing both hands to be inserted, meeting in the Middle.(See Also muff pocket)

Kasha lining
A lining principally for jackets featuring cotton flannel, napped face and imitation chambray back.

Knapping
Refers to the inside of a fleece garment. Garment fabric brushed with a wire brush to give a very soft hand.

Low Profile
Any crown of a cap that is LESS than 4" in height. Not to be confused with UNSTRUCTURED. We DO have low profile caps that are STRUCTURED.

Medium Weight
Classification for fabric of 22 to 24 single yarns, where the number of yarn denotes the overall fabric weight.

Muff pocket
A large front single pocket, with side openings allowing both hands to be inserted, meeting in the middle. (See also kangaroo pocket)

Nailhead
A woven in or engineered design. 

Open End Spinning
A system of spinning based on the concept of introducing twist to the yarn by rotating the yarn end at a gap in the flow of fibres between the delivery system and the yarn package; a much faster operation than ring spinning. Open-end yarn has a coarser hand than ring spun cotton.

Oxford
A modified plain or weave. Can be striped or checked by using groups of various coloured yarn.

Piece Dyed
This term is used when the knitted cloth is dyed, prior to being assembled into a finished product.

Pilling
Accumulation of fibers on the surface of a fabric, caused by wear and washing. In 50/50 fabric, cotton fibers tear and become tangled with the stronger fibers on the surface of the garment. A higher cotton content results in less pilling.

Pima (Cotton)
Refers to type of cotton. Originally grown by the Pima Indians in the South West part of the United States. Its natural colour is yellow as opposed to white for other cotton. It's a very fine, long staple (refers to the length of the individual fibres) cotton. It is a very soft and strong fibre that accepts dye well.

Pique (Pee-kay)
A knit sometimes called LaCoste because that company popularised its use. Has a distinct right and wrong side. The right side resembles a Honey Comb or a waffle and the wrong side is flat and smooth. Has a course firm hand and generally uses fine yarns.

Placket
A slit extending down the front of a shirt from the neck. The slit is usually secured with buttons

Quarter Turning
Eliminates the centre line by rotating the shirt at 900 so that the fold line is then under the arms. Currently, imprinters like this feature because it eliminates the centre line.

Quilted (jacket)
Jacket featuring a lining with two or more layers and a padded filling.

Raglan
A type of sleeve sewn in with seams slanting outward from the neck to the underarm.

Reinforced Placket (X-Box)
A square or rectangular sewn area used to strengthen and reinforce the bottom of a placket.

Rib knit
A form of knit fabric with vertical rows of knitting loops visible on both sides of the cloth. This fabric features more elasticity than jersey knit.

Ring Spun Cotton
Yarn produced on ring frame equipment; typically, this is a finer yarn, producing a softer hand.

Ringer
T-shirt, with solid body featuring ribbed crew neck (and sleeve bands) in a contrasting colour.

Ripstop
Very fine woven fabric, often NYLON, with coarse, strong yarns spaced at intervals so that tears will not spread.

Saddle Shoulder
Variation of a raglan sleeve, where the shoulder portion forms a straight band cut in the same piece with the sleeve. It is seamed front and back parallel to the shoulder instead of at an angle as in raglan style.

Seamless Tubular Collar
Increases durability of collar and prevents splitting of collar seams.

Self collar
Collar comprised of the same type of piece goods used in the shirt body. The collar is made by sewing the two collar parts together with a lining in the centre for support.(As in tanks tops and ladies items)

Set-in Sleeves
Style of sleeve, which is sewn into the shoulder seam. The seam is straight up and down from the shoulder seam to the underarm. (as opposed to the neck in RAGLAN sleeves).

Shoulder-to-Shoulder Taping
Shoulder seams, as well as neck seam are covered by tape or binding. This reinforces shoulder and neck seams, and reduces separation of the seams.

Shrinkage Rate
Approximately 4 - 5 % on most 100 % garments after pre-shrinking or compacting

Structured
Crown of a cap has Buckram to give the cap shape even when it is not being worn.

Under visor
The coloured material on the bottom side of the visor. Years ago, the under visor was always green because this colour was considered easiest on the eyes. Today, however, in most circumstances, the colour of the under visor matches the colour of the cap.

Unstructured/Unconstructed
When there is no buckram in the crown of a cap. The cap only has shape when placed on the head.

Visor (Peak)
The front of the hat or cap that extends out from the front panel and acts as a sunshade. Also, a type of headwear that consists of the peak or sunshade only so that the top of the head is exposed. When referring to a full cap, visor is interchangeable with peak.

V-notch
Triangular 2-ply patch of material sewn to the front of the neck for decorative purposes.

Waffle
Stitch used in KNIT goods to produce a series of square waffle-like designs.

Wales
The individual loops of a course (vertical rows of loops) also, when referring to corduroy, the amount of ridges per inch in the fabric.

Water-Repellent
The characteristic of a fibre to resist wetting. Most water repellent garments have a COATING to achieve water repellence.

Welted Sleeve Cuffs
one piece of rib knit material sewn on the cuff, collar or placket of a shirt.

Yarn dyeing
Yarn, which has been dyed prior to the weaving of the goods; follows the spinning of the yarn.

Yoke
A part of a garment fitted closely to the shoulders.

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